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英语:第二章 名师手记

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英语:第二章 名师手记

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第十六讲 简单句、并列句和复合句

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一。考纲要求

  语法知识点1

考试大纲要求考生能正确判断句子的类型、分析句子结构、结合语境和句意选择适当的连接词语、判断主语和从句的正确语序、恰当选择主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

  1.as...as.。。引导的比较级:(1)“as 形容词或副词原级 as 被比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像你一样学习努力。

二。命题导向

  (2)在否定句或疑问句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高考对简单句、并列句和复合句的考查主要包括:句子的结构、连词的选择、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习惯用语和特殊的句式应用。

  2.only引导的倒装句型:only 状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  只有勤奋、正直,一个人在生活中才能成功。 

1.简单句、并列句和复合句

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  只有那位女生知道怎样解那道题。

① 句子种类两种分类法

  3.wish引导的虚拟语气:wish 后面的从句,当表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望时,其宾语从句的动词形式为: 

按照句子的用途,英语的句子可分:陈述句(肯定、否定)、疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意)、祈使句、感叹句等四种。

  ⑴表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be 的过去式用were.   

按照句子的结构可分:简单句并列句和复合句三种。

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    我希望知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道。) 

简单句只有一个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and, but, or,so等)或分号(;)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。复合句包含:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

  ⑵表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用had 过去分词。 

② 并列句的分类

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。( 实际上已经浪费掉了。) 

并列句指把两个同等重要的句子连接在一起,句子之间常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等并列连词连接。

  ⑶表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为“would/ should/ could/ might 动词原形”。在这种情况下,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能否实现,取决于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动作名词除外) 。 

表示选择关系常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能停止。 

表示转折关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,可以表示请求,通常意味着说话人的不快或不满。

表示因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  我希望你安静一些。 

2.状语从句:

  4.it形式宾语:和it 作形式主语一样,  我们常用it 来作形式宾语, 把真正的宾语从句放在句末, 这种情况尤其出现在带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的分类

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他表明他不会屈服。 

状语从句通常修饰主句的动词或整个句子,由从属连词引导,从属连词在从句中不充当句子成分。根据状语从句所表达的不同意义和功能,可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、比较、方式等状语从句。

  5.The 比较级,the 比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的词语

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。我们越害怕困难,困难就会变得越强大。

时间状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as, hardly/ scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.一……就……,while, till, until, since, once。名词词组the first time第一次,last time最后一次,every/each time每次,the next time下次,the next day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant 一……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

  语法知识点2

原因状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

  1. 宾语从句:一般疑问句做宾语,引入if或whether

地点状语从句:where,wherever(无论那里)。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

让步状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though, although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however, wherever, whenever等。

  2. 原因状语从句:since引导的

条件状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(如果;只要),in case (万一); on condition that(如果), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

目的状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

比较状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……) 引导。

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

方式状语从句:as(正如;按照),as if/as though (好像)引导。

  4. If虚拟条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以至于)。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could 动原
跟过去事实相反 had done would/should/might/could have done
跟将来事实相反 should 动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could 动原

(3)从句中的语序

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词后面,作介词的宾语。

复合句中通常采用陈述语序。但是,在下面的几种情况下,状语从句多采用倒装语序:

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。

①当连词as, though连接让步状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词通常置于句首,构成部分倒装语序。例如:

  6.状语从句省略(分词作状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语一致,状从省略采用分词作状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John。

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn't get the door open。

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的两个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such...that.。.结果状语从句中,so 形容词/副词或such 名词置于句首时,主句采用部分倒装语序。例如:

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 sb 表示“前者情况适用于后者”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere.

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

  3.定语从句 who引导的限定性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no sooner置于句首时,第一个分句采用部分倒装语序,即把第二个分句用陈述语序。例如:

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教我们英语的那个女孩吗?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一起引导让步状语从句,句子采用陈述语序。例如:

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the 比较级the 比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子仍然采用陈述语序。例如:Education is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you are。

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since 的不同之处在于,now that 引出的必须是一个新出现的事实或情况,如果依然如故,和过去相比并没有变化,则不用 now that 引导。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然我们把所有材料都准备好了,我们应该立刻开始这项新的工作。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态一般遵循以下的规律:

  7. 原因状从:for的用法。由because 引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用并列连词 for 来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他今天没来,因为他生病了。

①表示“同时”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while 等连接的时间状语从句,主句和从句时态基本一致。例如:As time passed, things seemed to get worse。

  8. 原因状从:as 的用法。例句:The Singapore passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

② 表示“将来”意义的条件、时间和让步状语从句中多用一般现在时,而主句用一般将来时,被称为“主将从现”。例如:Tom won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

③ since引导的时间状语从句多用一般过去时,而含有since从句的主句通常用现在完成时。例如:I haven’t met her since I left university。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 私营化的优点在于能促进相互竞争。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no sooner…than…中,第一个分句中过去完成时,第二个分句用一般过去时。例如:She had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

  10. 不定式:不定式做目的状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though 引导的状语从句中,如果表示一种与事实相反夸张,从句多用一般过去时或过去完成时。例如:She stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

  文章来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的省略

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同时,被动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词 过去分词;主动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词 现在分词。例如:We all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get worse。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

(6)状语从句被用于强调结构中

状语从句作为被强调部分用于强调结构时,一律用It is/was …that…,不能用when代替that。句子用陈述语序。注意:当强调Not until 时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再采用倒装语序。例如:It was not until the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  1. 名词性从句

(1)名词性从句分类:

按照在句中的功能,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句四种。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担任成分,有时可被省略;表示“是否”用whether,只有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if代替。Whether和if在从句中不担任成分。如果从句缺少主语、表语、宾语、或定语等句子成分,用连接代词what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which;如果从句缺少状语,用连接副词when, where, how, why。

由于连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因而从句中谓语不用疑问语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充当句子成分,而连接词whether 和if(是否),在从句中不充当句子成分,只起连接作用。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

① 在以下三种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should 动词原形”, should可省略。

(1)It is 形容词 that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural, funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人惊讶的)等。

(2) It is 名词 that…句型。常见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion, proposal(提议,建议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

(3) It is 动词的过去分词 that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose, request, suggest, demand, require等。

②在insist(坚持), urge (催促), order(命令), command(命令), suggest(建议),advise(建议),recommend(建议,推荐), request(请求,要求), demand(要求),require(要求,需要)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”, should可省略。

③ 在含有advice, order, demand, proposal(提议), requirement, suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”,should可省略。

④在一些表示惊讶、意志等感情色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”或“should have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。例如:

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  1. 定语从句

(1)定语从句的分类

定语从句分为限制性定语从句非限制性定语从句两种。限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限制作用,而非限制性定语从句对先行词起补充和解释说明作用。通常限制性定语从句与先行词之间没有逗号,而非限制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开。

(2)定语从句的关系代词和关系副词

定语从句一般由关系代词和关系副词引导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose, which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where, why。关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连接先行词和从句的作用,同时在从句中又充当句子成分。

(3)关系代词和关系副词的用法:

①当先行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;②当先行词为物或整个句子时用which,可作主语或宾语;③先行词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤ 关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(4)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别

①限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。例如:I was the only person in our office who was invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完整)

② 非限制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不密切,去掉定从句,意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号隔开,不能that用引导。例如:His movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意思仍完整)

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的几个问题

①用that而不用 which的情况:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, much…;先行词有最高级修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。例如:There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

② 用which而不用 that的情况:引导非限制性定语从句;指代整个主句的意思;用于介词 的后面 关系代词。例如:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an example。

③ 关系代词as的用法

a. 当现行词为 the same 名词,such 名词时,要用关系代词as引导定语从句。例如:

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

b. as可指代主句的内容,引导的非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后。常用于下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。例如: He got the first place again in this mid-term examination, as we expected。

c. as 引导非限制性定语从句时与which的区别

当主句和从句语义一致时,用as引导;反之,用which来引导非限制性定语从句;当非限制定语从句为否定意义时,常用which引导。例如:

He made a long speech, as we expected。

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

④关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数还是用复数应由先行词决定。例如:

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the morning。

⑤ 引导定语从句的关系副词有时可以用“介词 which”来代替。例如:

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was founded。

⑥在”介词 关系代词”结构中,关系代词只能用which和whom,且不能省略;如果介词在句末,关系代词可用which, that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可省略。例如:

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be friendly。

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